What are the different ORM levels in Hibernate?

There are following four different ORM levels in Hibernate:

  • Pure Relational ORM: At this level entire application is designed around the relational model. All the operations are SQL based at this level.
  • Light Object Mapping: At this level entity classes are mapped manually to relational tables. Business logic code is hidden from data access code. Applications with less number of entities use this level.
  • Medium Object Mapping: In this case, application is designed around an object model. Most of the SQL code is generated at compile time. Associations between objects are supported by the persistence mechanism. Object-oriented expression language is used to specify queries.
  • Full Object Mapping: This is one of the most sophisticated object modeling level. It supports composition, inheritance, polymorphism and persistence. The persistent classes do not inherit any special base class at this level. There are efficient fetching and caching strategies implemented transparently to the application.
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